PDF | On Jan 1, , stephen westland and others published Colour Harmony. As you can see from the above equation, the variables used to calculate the perfectly harmonic color scheme is not just based on the wheel, but also based on. Color Harmony 2, A Guide to Creative Color Combinations This Book. Enter Color Harmony Workbook, a tool designed to end this frustration and lend.
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and (c) to establish a basis for a color harmony conceptual- learning model. METHOD AND DATA SOURCES. A content analysis was done of 12 books on color. Wherein, color harmony is a function (f) of the interaction between color/s (Col 1, 2, 3, , n) and the factors that influence positive aesthetic response to color. Editorial Reviews. Review. "Excellent, specific guides to creating fine colorcombinations and The books does contain hundreds of color combinations, but throughout the book the 61 colors used to form different combinations are identified.
Harkness concluded that no one per fect or ideal colour wheel could be identified and noted that successful use of the var ious colour wheels requires an awareness and understanding of the different philosophies behind each wheel .
The last hu n d r ed year s h as seen a pr ofu sion of colou r wheels t h at at tem pt to r evea l har mon ious relation ships. This means that the representations of colour wheels produced in textbooks, for example, are subject to the vagar ies of colour reproduction and m ay, from time to time, be m isleading.
Colour Harmony Theory The previous section on colour wheels was necessar y because these arrangements of hue have been par ticularly prom inent amongst theor ies of colour har mony. Early system atic concepts of harmony in the Western world were based on Pythagorean number symbolism and specific colour scales. Theories of colour harmony since the Renaissance include the following com mon themes: changes in chrom a and br ightness within the same hue, neighbour ing colours and opposing colours.
Var ious colour wheels have been helpful to represent such relation ships. However, Rood argued that such a contrast in a sm all space would en hance the effect. It is possible to see the in fluence of both Chevreul and Rood in works such as Sunday afternoon on La Grande Jatte Figure 7 and Wom an at the w ell Figure 8 , and indeed the wr itings of both Chevreul and Rood seem to have had a great impact on the French impression ists.
Three of the most important contributors to colour har mony in the early 20 th centur y were Ost wald, Mu n sell and It ten. A com m on factor in all t h ree views of colour harmony was the use of a colour solid or colour-order system to represent the relationships between colours. An early colour solid was developed by Philipp Otto Runge — , who used a hue colour wheel in relation sh ip to a central core of a m iddle-value grey.
The hues were gradated in tones towards the grey core whose upper point was white and whose lower point was black. This sphere predates the solids later produced by Mun sell and Ostwald by almost a centur y . In the Ost wald colour circle yellow and blue were opposite each ot her as were red and green. Ostwald developed some ideas about colour har mony based upon his colour solid which can be sum m ar ised as: 1.
Colours har mon ise if they are located at the equal white and equal black circle in the solid 2.
Colours har mon ise if they have equal white content 3. Colours har mon ise if they have equal black content 4. Colours har mon ise if they have equal hue content. The American ar t instructor and painter Alber t Munsell — developed a novel system for descr ibing and com mun icating colour.
Mun sell arranged his samples in the form of a tree with the tr un k representing the achrom atic colours black through grey to white, and with each branch representing a hue.
The fur ther away from the tr un k samples were, the greater their chrom a. The samples were presented in a book so that each page contained samples of the same hue whose value increased up the page and whose chrom a increased away from the spine of the page. The Munsell system had several key attr ibutes.
Firstly, each sample could be notated by three numbers that specified its position in the book. Secondly, although the notion of a spher ical colour solid with the most saturated colours on the equator was not novel Mun sell him self attr ibuted this idea to Runge , the spacing of the samples was designed so that the perceptual distance bet ween samples was con stant. Thus, moving around the hue circle would involve a progression through the hues with steps of equal visual m agn itude.
Interestingly, the Mun sell system was based around fi ve basic hues: red, yellow, green, blue and pur ple. In order to en sure this, he calculated the colour strength of a colour region as the product of its area, lightness and saturation.
Thus, a sm all area of high colour strength would balance a large area of low colour strength. In the balance of colour areas, a strong colour should occupy a sm aller space to balance a weak colour. To do this, the areas should be inversely propor tional to the product of Mun sell value V and Mun sell chrom a C. These paths include: 1.
Colours on the grey scale 2. Colours of the same Mun sell hue and chrom a 3.
Complementar y colours having the same value and chrom a 4. Colours on an elliptical path in the Mun sell space.
The Mun sell system became inter nationally successful as a method of colour com mun ication and is still ver y popular today. Alter native colour-order system s have been proposed as tools for colour har mony including, for example, the Coloroid system . Itten, who was one of the fi rst m asters of for m at the Bauhaus, proposed that all visual perception is the result of seven specific methods of colour contrast . These contrasts are of: 1.
Value 2. Saturation 3.
Hue 4. Exten sion 5. Complements 7. Simultaneous contrast. The fi rst three refer to contrasts in the three perceptual dimen sion s of colour and the four th concer n s contrast in size for different colours.
Goethe had earlier noted that different hues were different in their inten sities and produced the following light values: yellow 9 , orange 8 , red 6 , violet 3 , blue 4 and green 6.
The sixth contrast relates to the relation ships of the aforementioned complementar y pairs. Finally, Itten was concerned with simultaneous contrast.
According to him , the simultaneous effect occurs bet ween any t wo colours that are not precisely complementar y. Each of the t wo will tend to shift the other towards its own complement, and generally both will lose some of their intr in sic character. Under these condition s, colours give an impression of dynam ic act ivit y.
It is now u nder stood t h at simu ltaneou s contrast encompasses contrasts of hue, br ightness value , and colour fulness saturation and is a ubiquitous phenomenon in colour vision .
Fur ther more, in cer tain situation s colours will assim ilate with each other rather than contrast . Itten produced a colour wheel to illustrate his ideas based upon the red, yellow and blue pr im ar y system Figure 6.
Itten believed that all complem entar y pairs presum ably he m eant subtractive complem ents , all th ree- colour combination s whose colours form equilateral or isosceles tr iangles, and all four-colour combination s for m ing squares or rectangles are har mon ious.
The contr ibution s to colour-har mony theor y of ar tists such as Hen r i, Kand in sky and Pope, for exam ple, h ave been r eviewed . Rober t Hen r i 18 65— developed the Maratta system that used red— yellow— blue as pr im ar ies and orange— green— pur ple as secondar ies.
The Maratta system was a fi xed palette of available pigments which, if properly understood, would assure har mony. Wassily Kandin sky — , who joined the Bauhaus in , associated colours with shapes and even with motion.
Thus the three pr im ar y colours were logically associated with the three m ain shapes. The four th great contrast was orange and violet. Ar thur Pope — taught in the fi ne ar ts depar tment at Har vard for over 30 years and believed in an orderly approach to colour har mony. He designed colour scales, worked with fi xed palettes, and pursued system atic and methodical colour expression. Contemporary Colour Harmony A recent review of soft ware that attempts to assist in the generation of har mon ious colour schemes reveals that most of these system s focus on the harmony of hue and express r ules for creating colour harmony in term s of a hue circle .
While your color scheme can use any tints, shades, and tones, color theor y pays attention on ly to the hue component. The ideas of balance and the relation ships bet ween chrom a and size, and bet ween hue and chrom a, seem to have been largely forgotten in design soft ware.
The har mony of hues is also represented in m any ar t and design textbooks with reference to hue circles. Figure 9 illustrates four ubiquitous schemes: 1. Monochromatic colour harmony where colours are chosen with the same or nearly the same hue 2.
Complementar y colour harmony this is always represented as referr ing to opposite colours on a hue circle 3.
Analogous har mony where colours are chosen with sim ilar hues 4. Split-complementar y har mony where there are basically three colours, with t wo being either side of the complement of the third in the hue circle. Other examples not illustrated in Figure 9 include tr iadic colour har mony three colours whose hues are each separate by about degrees in the hue circle and tetradic colour har mony basically a double complementar y scheme.
However, m any educators are aware that lightness often ter med value and chrom a often ter med saturation have an affect on the har mony of a hue palette. For example, Holtzschue notes that any hues used together can be harmon ious . Figure 9 Four typical geometric relationships: monochromatic a , complementary b , analogous c , split complementary d con sidered.
When con sider ing that hue relation ships alone are incomplete ideas about colour har mony, Holtzschue offers three ideas about value and har mony: 1. Even inter vals of value are har mon ious 2. Inter mediate values are har mon ious, and 3.
Analogous Color Scheme Analogous color schemes use adjacent colors from the color wheel. The result is a visually pleasing and calming display of color. One of the colors in an analogous color scheme is used as a dominant hue.
Select a second color to support the dominant hue and a third to use as an accent. One idea behind this use of color comes from nature. Think of a field of grass, it is made up of many variants of green and yellow. This principle is applied on the website for the Yellow Bird Project, which appropriately uses a yellow scheme. Triadic and Tetradic Color Schemes Triadic color schemes, which use three colors equidistant from one another on the color wheel, are among the most popular used by designers.
Triadic color schemes create a sense of equality and security, because of the use of varying hues. Triadic color schemes also tend to be quite vibrant and should be used in a way that best uses this feature.
Balance color by selecting a dominant hue and use the two other triadic colors as accents. A tetradic or rectangle color scheme, which uses a combination of four colors, is similar to the triadic because it is vibrant and should contain one dominant color. The arrangement of colors comes from two sets of complementary colors, meaning the four hues are not equally placed around the color wheel. A rectangular scheme may use a combination of red and green with red-orange and blue-green.
Watch how warm and cool colors are used in this scheme to create the desired effect. Much like the tetradic scheme, a square color scheme uses four colors, but colors are spaced evenly around the color wheel. Again, a single hue should be dominant with the others used as accents. Again, keep an eye on the use of warm and cool colors in this four-hue scheme.
More Color Schemes In addition to the basic types of color schemes noted above, there are a handful of others that are widely used.
One of the most popular, and modern, color schemes is the monochromatic look, such as that used by Dark Crimson Productions. Each hue used in the palette is a tint, tone or shade of a single color. The look results in an organized and direct feel. Neutral schemes use shades of only browns and tans. It shows color schemes in three different ways, giving you light, medium, and dark palettes.
You can change colors using the slider. To choose colors from a small fragment of the image, you can use the sample selection. The color palette generated by Material Design Palette can be downloaded or tweeted. It also generates color schemes according to various color combination categories such as Monochromadic, Triadic, Complementary Color Scheme, Split Complementary, Double Complementary, etc. You can lighten the generated color scheme and also darken it.
Software for this color scheme generator is available for download on both PC and Mac. You can add or upload photographs from your PC or by using supported services like Flickr, Instagram, Facebook and Dropbox. The program will then analyze the colors and generate color schemes from the uploaded photograph, as well as providing CSS code for the color scheme.
You can download swatches to use in Adobe software.
It starts with one color and keeps adding the colors as you move your cursor on the screen; simply click to save a color. You can search the photographs using keywords the site suggests to search by theme or location ; once Palettr returns search results, you can view the photographs along with the color schemes they inspired.
It has a few pre-designed color palettes that you can select, as well as an extensive tool for generating the color scheme of your choice. You can download Colorotate as an app on your iPad.